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Solid-state batteries may be listed as the core technology of new energy vehicles

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An industry planning document with the words "New Energy Automobile Industry Development Plan (2021-2035)" (hereinafter referred to as "the Plan") has been released on the Internet, and many people find it fascinating that it can be used as a preview of the government's long-term plan for the new energy automobile industry. The plan puts forward specific targets for the industrial development and technological innovation of power cell and fuel cell. Among them, "accelerating the r&d and industrialization of all-solid-state power battery technology" has been listed as "the key technology research project of new energy vehicles" in the "Plan". If true, efforts to develop all-solid-state batteries could be elevated to the level of national strategy.
Solid-state battery is considered as the next generation of mainstream power battery technology because of its high energy density, high safety and high stability. In recent years, international mainstream car companies such as Toyota, Volkswagen, BMW, Honda, Nissan and Hyundai have all invested in r&d of solid-state battery technology, hoping to take the lead in the competition of next-generation power battery technology. Domestic automobile enterprises, research institutes and battery enterprises are also paying close attention to and developing solid-state batteries. If it is true that solid-state battery is listed as a core technology research project in the plan, the government is expected to cooperate with domestic research institutes and enterprises to accelerate the r&d process of this technology. Solid-state lithium-ion batteries versus conventional lithium-ion batteries
Source: research status and prospects of all solid lithium battery technology/Evergrande research institute

With the rapid growth of the number of new energy vehicles, the safety accidents of new energy vehicles are also increasing gradually, among which the new energy vehicles catch fire especially. Lithium batteries contain flammable liquid electrolyte, it is difficult to solve this problem. Solid state battery adopts solid electrolyte with ionic conductivity to replace electrolyte in whole or in part, which is beneficial to improve the safety performance of battery. At the same time, from the point of view of improving battery performance, solid state battery has great potential compared with the existing liquid lithium battery. According to Ouyang Minggao, a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, lithium-ion batteries, which are liquid electrolytic in the short term, will be developed into solid-state batteries in the next step, based on the comparison between different countries' power battery technologies. Considering the cost of batteries and the development direction of power batteries, Ouyang Suggested that China should follow a similar path, that is, develop high-nickel ternary positive electrode and silicon-carbon negative electrode with liquid electrolyte in the short term. In the medium to long term, there is a gradual transition from liquid electrolyte to all solid state batteries.
Companies have taken a close look at solid-state batteries
Solid-state batteries, which are expected to crack consumers' "safety anxiety, endurance anxiety and charging anxiety" for electric vehicles, have been attracting a lot of attention from car companies. European and US carmakers also hope to regain the initiative in power batteries by taking the lead in solid-state battery technology. At present, international automobile enterprises such as Volkswagen, Daimler, BMW, Renault, Toyota, Nissan, Honda, Hyundai and Ford, and domestic automobile enterprises such as BYD, Nextev, Tianji, United and BAIC have invested in the field of solid-state battery.
In terms of battery enterprises, domestic enterprises such as Ningde Times, BYD, Ganfeng Lithium, Beijing Wei LAN, Qingtao Energy, Lishen battery, Huineng Science and Technology, Guoxuan High-tech, Yiwei Lithium, Jiawei Stock have been developing solid-state batteries. In January this year, Toyota and Panasonic announced that they would set up a joint venture company of square batteries for vehicles by the end of 2020, which will be responsible for the r&d and production of all solid batteries and square lithium batteries for vehicles. In November 2018, Samsung SDI, LG Chem and SKI agreed to work together to develop core battery technology. In addition, the three companies will set up a 100 billion won ($90 million) fund to jointly invest in technology research and development for solid-state, lithium metal and lithium sulfur batteries.
We will improve the development system for the power battery industry
The plan puts forward that after 15 years of continuous efforts, China will strive to make major breakthroughs in core technologies of new energy vehicles, make pure electric vehicles become the mainstream, and realize large-scale application of fuel cell commercial vehicles. By 2030, new energy vehicles will form a competitive advantage in the market, accounting for 40% of the total vehicle sales in the same year. At that time, a "three vertical" pattern will be formed with pure electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles, and the whole vehicle technology innovation chain will be arranged. With the power battery and management system, drive motor and power electronics, network and intelligent technology as the "three horizontal", the key component technology supply system is constructed.
In addition, the plan also proposes to promote the development of power batteries throughout the value chain. To be specific, optimize industrial organization structure and improve industry concentration. The production of power batteries needs lithium, nickel, cobalt and other metal resources. In order to ensure the stable supply of power batteries for electric vehicles and the long-term healthy development of the industry, it is urgent to stabilize and even lock the upstream resources. The Plan encourages qualified enterprises to enhance their capacity to safeguard key resources such as lithium, nickel, cobalt and platinum.
With the expansion of the scale of electric vehicles, how to effectively recycle retired batteries has become a problem to be dealt with urgently in the industry. According to the plan, the multi-level and multi-purpose recycling and utilization system of power batteries shall be improved, and the joint construction and common recycling channels shall be encouraged. At the same time, the power battery transportation and storage, maintenance, safety inspection, scrap exit and other aspects of the management system to strengthen the full life cycle supervision.
In addition, the plan also proposes to establish and improve the modular standard system of power battery, accelerate the breakthrough of key manufacturing equipment, and improve the technological level and production efficiency.
Break the development barrier of hydrogen fuel cell industry
Hydrogen fuel cell technology, as one of the important development routes of new energy vehicle industry, has been paid more and more attention. However, at present, the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle industry is still faced with the difficulties of unbreakthrough in core technology, lack of localization of key components, lack of infrastructure and high cost. According to the plan, the construction of hydrogen fuel supply guarantee system should be promoted in an orderly manner. To be specific, improve the economy of hydrogen fuel production, storage and transportation: develop industrial by-product hydrogen production and renewable energy hydrogen production technology application according to local conditions, and accelerate the industrialization of advanced suitable hydrogen storage materials. Demonstration and application of storage and transportation technologies in various forms, including high-pressure gas, low-temperature liquid and solid, will be carried out, and hydrogen transport pipelines will be explored to gradually reduce the cost of storage and transportation of hydrogen fuel.
In terms of infrastructure, enterprises should be guided to rationally arrange hydrogenation infrastructure according to hydrogen fuel supply and consumption demand. The plan also says it will support companies in providing integrated oil, gas, hydrogen and electricity supply services using existing sites and facilities.
The imperfect regulatory system is also one of the obstacles hindering the development of hydrogen fuel cell industry. According to the plan, policies and regulations will be improved and a policy mechanism will be established to promote the coordinated development of hydrogen fuel production, storage and transportation. We will improve the management standards for projects approval, construction, acceptance and operation of hydrogenation infrastructure, strengthen the safety supervision of hydrogenation infrastructure, and improve the safety standards and testing and certification capabilities of hydrogenation infrastructure. Improve the standard and test system of high pressure hydrogen storage unit for vehicles.

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